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Do You Know that Deportability and Inadmissibility Can Obstruct Your Path to US Citizenship?
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James called the other day to ask our advice. He wanted to know if he did the right thing in listening to his public defender (PD) and taking a guilty plea to simple assault. It seems that he was involved in a barroom fight a few weeks ago and charged with several crimes. The prosecutor agreed to knock everything down to a single count of assault in return for a guilty plea, with a suspended sentence and unsupervised probation. James’ public defender said that it was a great deal and that he should take it quickly. James told his public defender a couple of times that he is here on an H-1B visa and that he doesn’t want this to affect his job or getting his green card. The PD said he wasn’t sure but that “it shouldn’t be a problem.” James may or may not have problems moving forward.

Overview of Current Law

Understanding the immigration consequences of a particular criminal disposition can be very complicated and involves careful analysis of the elements of the state and/or federal offense and the state’s particular disposition of the case under federal immigration law.

This article is meant to provide only a quick overview of the grounds of deportability and inadmissibility. In order to understand the immigration consequences of a particular criminal case disposition for a particular immigrant, you must first understand the distinction between the criminal grounds of deportability and the criminal grounds of inadmissibility, and when each applies.

Deportability v. Inadmissibility

There are two separate parts of the immigration law that may trigger removal based on a criminal offense—the grounds of deportability found at INA 237(a)(8 U.S.C. 1227(a)) and the grounds of “inadmissibility” found at INA 212(a)(8 U.S.C. 1182(a)). Which set of grounds may apply to an individual, or whether both apply, depends on the individual’s particular immigration status and situation. "Deportability" refers to the power of USCIS to expel an alien from the United States, whereas "inadmissibility" refers to the power USCIS to refrain anyone from entering the United States.

Deportability:

The deportability grounds are applicable to individuals who have been “lawfully admitted” to the United States, e.g., a lawful permanent resident or an alien in H-1B status. An alien has been “admitted” or made a lawful entry into the US only after they have been inspected by an immigration officer and that immigration officer has authorized their admission.

Inadmissibility

The grounds of inadmissibility apply to everyone else, even individuals who are in the United States but who have not been lawfully admitted to the United States, i.e., undocumented immigrants. In addition, the inadmissibility grounds may be applied to lawful permanent resident immigrants when such individuals travel abroad and seek re-admission.

Conviction

You must also understand what a “conviction” is for immigration purposes. A conviction includes any formal judgment of guilt that is entered by a court, or if an adjudication of guilt has been withheld, a conviction will still be found where a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or a plea of guilty or nolo contender has been entered or the alien has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt; and a judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint of liberty to be imposed.

As you can see the term conviction for immigration purposes is now very broad you may be “convicted” even in the case where judgment has been withheld, if you are ordered to pay a fine or possibly even court costs.

  1. Criminal grounds for deportation of lawfully admitted immigrants:

    You must also understand what a “conviction” is for immigration purposes. A conviction includes any formal judgment of guilt that is entered by a court, or if an adjudication of guilt has been withheld, a conviction will still be found where a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or a plea of guilty or nolo contender has been entered or the alien has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt; and a judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint of liberty to be imposed.

    As you can see the term conviction for immigration purposes is now very broad you may be “convicted” even in the case where judgment has been withheld, if you are ordered to pay a fine or possibly even court costs.

  2. Criminal grounds for deportation of lawfully admitted foreign nationals:

    The criminal grounds for deportation of a lawfully admitted individual, such as a lawful permanent resident green card holder, are listed in INA Section 237(a)(2), 8 U.S.C. 1227(a)(2), and include the following:

    • Conviction of any controlled substance offense (other than a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marijuana), whether the conviction is for a felony or misdemeanor.
    • Conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude, whether felony or misdemeanor, committed within five years of admission to the United States and punishable by a year in prison—This category could include crimes in many different categories, e.g., crimes in which either an intent to steal or to defraud is an element (such as theft and forgery offenses); crimes in which bodily harm is caused or threatened by an intentional or willful act, or serious bodily harm is caused or threatened by an act of recklessness (such as murder, rape, and certain manslaughter and assault offenses); and most sex offenses. In many states, Class A misdemeanors as well as felonies are punishable by a year or more in jail so could, if deemed to involve moral turpitude, make an individual deportable if committed within five years after admission.
    • Conviction of two crimes involving moral turpitude, whether felony or misdemeanor, committed at any time after entry and regardless of actual or potential sentence.
    • Conviction of a firearm or destructive device offense, whether felony or misdemeanor.
    • Conviction of a crime of domestic violence, including stalking, child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment, whether felony or misdemeanor, or a violation of an order of protection, whether issued by a civil or criminal court.
    • Conviction of an aggravated felony—this category, which overlaps many of the above categories, has particularly harsh consequences because convictions falling into the aggravated felony category usually bar any possible waiver of deportation. Aggravated felonies include not only crimes such as murder, rape, and sexual abuse of a minor, but also many drug or firearm offenses, regardless of sentence; any crime of violence, theft or burglary offense, or obstruction of justice offense for which an individual gets a prison sentence of one year or more; fraud or deceit offenses where the loss to the victim(s) exceeds $10,000, as well as an expanding list of other specific offenses. As a result of broad interpretations of the statutory definition of “aggravated felony,” the term may include even some state misdemeanors such as a misdemeanor drug possession offense (preceded by a prior drug offense), misdemeanor sale of marijuana, or a misdemeanor petty larceny offense with a one-year prison sentence, actual or suspended.

  3. Criminal grounds for inadmissibility of those seeking lawful admission

    A foreign national who has not been admitted to the US, lawfully present but who has some claim to lawful status (e.g. married to a U.S. citizen) might be made permanently ineligible to be admitted as a lawful immigrant if convicted of certain crimes, or if he or she merely admits having committed a crime.

    The criminal grounds for inadmissibility are listed in INA Section 212(a)(2), 8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(2), and include the following:

    • Conviction or admitted commission of any controlled substance offense, whether felony or misdemeanor (this ground will apply even if a foreign national just admits to smoking marijuana).
    • Conviction or admitted commission of a crime involving moral turpitude, whether felony or misdemeanor (subject to a one-time petty offense exception).
    • Conviction of two or more offenses of any type with aggregate sentences to imprisonment of at least five years.
    • Prostitution within 10 years, and commercialized vice.

  4. Criminal bars to eligibility for U.S. Citizenship

    • In the case of a lawful permanent resident immigrant, ineligibility for U.S. citizenship is an additional possible negative consequence of a criminal case. This comes from the requirement that an immigrant must demonstrate good moral character to become a US citizen.
    • If a lawful permanent resident is deemed to have been convicted of an “aggravated felony”, he is permanently barred from being able to show the requisite good moral character for U.S. citizenship.
    • A lawful permanent resident could also be deemed ineligible for citizenship based on conviction or admission of other offenses that fall into the criminal inadmissibility grounds, or other evidence of conduct indicating lack of good moral character coming out of a court proceeding.

Citizenship adjudicators are required to consider an individual’s conduct during the period of residence and good moral character required for a grant of citizenship, which is generally five years, but citizenship adjudicators can and will often look back even further in time.

As is the case with removal consequences, recent legislation has made citizenship ineligibility an even more important consequence than it was in the past. Primary examples are the new eligibility rules for various federal and state government benefits that now or in the near future may wholly or partially bar non US citizens.

Conclusion

The potential for a criminal conviction can now pose serious problems for non-citizens of the US. The federal immigration definition of what constitutes a conviction for immigration purposes includes not only formal judgments of guilt, but also deferred adjudications where there is a plea or other admission of guilt plus some penalty or restraint ordered by the court. The list of acts that can lead to inadmissibility or removal from the US continues to grow. Moreover, to ensure the safety of the US, the Department of Homeland Security is detaining and removing more and more non-citizens each year. In fact, DHS statistics show a dramatically increasing rate of removals based on criminal grounds over the past twenty years. If you are a non-citizen and have been arrested or charged with any crime you need to seek the assistance of an attorney that is familiar with both criminal and immigration law. Your very ability to remain in the US may depend on his or her expertise.

Back to James, whom we met at the top of this article. He may or may not have future problems based on his guilty plea. Much will depend on the specific terms of the statute that he pled to, and how long the suspended sentence is. We will have to wait for details to sort out his case.

The above article is brought to you by "VisaPro.com". VisaPro’s US Immigration Lawyer Services include K-1 Visa, K-3, Adjustment of Status, Green Card, and over 100 Immigration Services. The information in this article is not intended to be legal advice.

If you have questions specific to your case, we suggest that you consult with the experienced immigration attorneys at http://consultattorney.visapro.com

We cover the latest happenings on work visas in Immigration Monitor, our monthly newsletter. Click here to subscribe to Immigration Monitor.


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